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Saquib Razak: Embedded Systems

Embedded System is combination between computer software and hardware that is designed for a specific function. It is used in a lot in our daily lives. For example, remote controls, AC, pagers, etc. Embedded systems use "microprocessors" which is a computer processor that does the functions of a CPU. Also, it uses "microcontroller" which contains processor core, memory and a programmable input/output. Embedded system usually small-sized, low power consumption, rugged operating ranges, and low per-unit cost.

There are many varieties in embedded systems. It is found in consumer, cooking, industrial, automotive, medical, commercial and military applications. Consumer electronics like personal data assistants and video games. Embedded systems are used to give household appliances flexibility, efficiency and features. Another example is transportation systems where it uses inertial guidance systems and GPS receivers to maximize efficiency and reduce pollution by using a variety of motors and controllers. Medical equipment also needs embedded systems to monitor vital signs and medical imaging (for example, PET, SPECT, CT and MRI).

User interface is one of embedded systems' characteristics. User interface means the interaction between a human and a machine. Embedded system can have a no user interface or a graphical user interfaces. One more characteristic is the processors in embedded systems. As it was mentioned before, embedded systems use micro processors and microcontrollers. It's quite different that CPU since embedded systems is mostly made for a specific function.

It works with something called "Real-time computing" which is basically a deadline for the program. In other words, the program is guaranteed (or must be guaranteed, if I have to say) to response in a specific time constraints. Real-time systems are classified by their consequences. A ‘Hard Real-Time' means missing the deadline means the failure of the system. ‘Firm Real-Time' means missing deadline are fine, but not as frequent since it may degrade the system's quality and the result would be zero after deadline. Last one is ‘Soft Real-Time' where missing deadlines are mostly fine, however, the quality of the system and results degrades after deadline.

It has a huge part in the "Internet of Things" (also known as IoT). To explain simply, IoT is the ability of connecting electronics, softwares, sensors and much more by the Internet. It is argued that the embedded systems would have a huge role in IoT. For example, it can be used as networked thermostats in heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems.

Questions:
1. How does the program efficiently work with low-power and size?
2. Can embedded systems can be considered a part of a general systems? Since general systems can be considered as a group of many things that do specific tasks
3. Can applications on the phone(etc) can be considered an embedded system even though it’s mostly a software?


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REVISED VER:

Embedded System is a combination between computer software and hardware that is designed for a specific function. It is used in a lot in our daily lives, for example, remote controls, AC, pagers, etc. Embedded systems use "microprocessors" which are computer processors that do the functions of a CPU. Also, embedded systems use a "microcontroller" which contains a processor core, memory and a programmable input/output. Embedded systems are usually small-sized, low per-unit cost, have low power consumption, and rugged operating ranges.

There are many application varieties in embedded systems. They are found in consumer, cooking, industrial, automotive, medical, commercial and military applications. Consumer electronics include personal data assistants and video games. Embedded systems are used to give household appliances flexibility, efficiency and features. Another application example is a transportation system where it uses inertial guidance systems and GPS receivers to maximize efficiency and reduce pollution by using a variety of motors and controllers. Medical equipment also needs embedded systems to monitor vital signs and medical imaging (for example, PET, SPECT, CT and MRI).

User interface is one of embedded systems' characteristics. User interface means the interaction between a human and a machine. Embedded systems can have a no user interface or a graphical user interface. One more characteristic is the processor in embedded systems. As it was mentioned before, embedded systems use micro processors and microcontrollers. They are quite different that CPUs since embedded systems are mostly made for a specific function.

Embedded systems works with something called "Real-time computing" which is basically a deadline for the program. In other words, the program is guaranteed (or must be guaranteed, if I have to say) to respond in a specific time constraint. Real-time systems are classified by their consequences. A ‘Hard Real-Time' means that missing the deadline leads to the failure of the system. ‘Firm Real-Time' means that missing deadline is fine, but after a few times it may degrade the system's quality and the result would be zero after deadline. The last one is ‘Soft Real-Time' where missing deadlines are permissible, however, the quality of the system and results continually degrade after deadline.

Embedded Systems has a huge part in the "Internet of Things" (also known as IoT). To explain simply, IoT is the ability of connecting electronics, software, sensors and much more by the Internet. It is argued that embedded systems have a huge role in IoT. For example, they can be used as networked thermostats in heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems.