In light of the topic theory of computation, the decision problem will provide an output that will answer "yes or no" for a given problem/input. An example of a decision problem is the "Hamilton Path Problem."
For a decision problem to be labelled as decidable, the algorithm must be able to answer "yes" or "no" for that given problem.
P stands for polynomial time, and NP stands for non-deterministic polynomial time. This highlights the amount of time it takes to solve N or NP problems. P problems are easily solvaed and recognized. NP problems are more complex and are only solved through trial and error. The heart of the issue attempts to convert an NP problem into a P problem. If you resolve the P versus NP question, you will receive $1,000,000 from the Clay Institute of Mathematics.
Data is one of the most valuable assets an indivudal, organization or government can own. Therefore, it is necessary to protect that data. As we will see below, sometimes, we fail to do so.
On 23rd of May 2017, a cyber-attack was executed and the hackers managed to break into the Qatar News Agency’s network and had “gained full control of the system.” They published “fake stories” (Al Jazeera, 2017) and committing other immoral acts. These hackers managed to gain access to the network due to a loophole in the system. Hackers usually use DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attacks or other tools such as Kali. Malicious attacks like these impacts the “security, peace and stability” of the country (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2020). So, Qatar investigated, with the aid of the experts, on where this attack was originated from and concluded it was from the UAE due to their IP address. Further measures in protecting network systems has been taken.
On 26th of April 2016, Qatar National Bank (QNB) receieved an unexpected attack from hackers. Those hackers managed to leak sensitive information to a site called "Cryptome" and many analysists believe the data to be accurate. Although detaila are left out on how the hackers managed to accomplish this, one can assume they achieved it through exploiting vulnerabilities in the system. The customers of the bank and QNB's reputation were impacted. However, even if someone manages to gain unauthorized access to login details , QNB has an extra privacy feature which requires a PIN code after entering the username and password. QNB stated that they were investigating the issue to verify the claims. ISMG, however, were unable to verify the authenticity of the claims being made (Bank Info Security, 2016).
In simple terms, cloud computing delivers data over the internet from any place you may be. This data can range from software to databases to storage. This, however, is not really new technology. It can be considered as branded technology that is based on mainframe computers. The only major difference is now mainframes can join to any device, given an internet connection.
The 3 types of cloud computing are: SaaS, which stands for Software as a Service; PaaS, which means Platform as a Service; and IAAS, which is Infrastructure as a Service (Fingent, 2018).
Netflix, Apple and Instagram are just some examples of major companies that use cloud computing, not to mention Amazon's Web Services. The reason why cloud computing is so common to companies and individuals is the effectiveness of cloud computing. Cloud computing offers:
The economy of a cloud computing provider depends on the company. For example, some companies charge a monthly fee whilst others, such as the Amazon Web Services, charge fees based on your usage of that service.
The purpose of programming languages is to provide machines with specific instructions to perform particular tasks. Punch cards, invented by Herman Hollerith, fulfilled this need, but not very efficiently. Punch cards took a lot of storage space and were hard to understand. Thus, programming languages offers a much more robust tool for giving instructions to computers, which is why we use programming languages rather than punch cards.
"Over 250 programming languages exist." - Computer Hope (2020). The reason for the existance of many programming languages is due to the different goals and purposes of each programming language; not all programming languages are the same. Programming languages each strive to accomplish specific tasks: for example, it is like asking for why there are so many different fields in mathematics. Each is its own subfield in its own specialization.
A drawback of an interpreted programming languages is, although they may be easier to understand, they complete a program relaitvely slower than compiled languages. An example would be Python being slower than C++.
In his article, "How would I go about creating a programming language?" Tomassetti considers 4 steps involved in creating a programming language:
AI is defined as Artificial Intelligence, in which computers or machines try to mimic human intelligence.
There are numerous branches of artifical intelligence, however, I will be mentioning only 3 crucial subtopics: machine learning, expert systems, and robotics.
The reason why AI is booming now is due to advancements made in pattern recognition software, which was only possible due to deep learning, a key area in AI and machine learning.
The first thing that comes to mind when mentioning the major applications of robotics is in the manufacturing industry, exmaples include assembling parts of a car, or doing a paint job. Other major applications of robotics include healthcare and agricultural industries. The reason why numerous robots are adopted in these fields is due to the fact that robots can operate 24/7, don't need to be paid wages, which saves cost in the long run, and aid us in completeing repetitive tasks very efficiently.
Three major challenges of a wheeled autonomous robot performing a 24h surveillance task in a large facility include: needing to move swiftly, recognizing a security threat, and be able to function preoprly without sudden malfunctions.
Common applications of natural language processing include chatbots and virtual assistants, machine translations, and search autocrrect/autocomplete.
Breaking down English words into its internal components help NLP programs to interpret meanings of words. Three examples of such cases include (note these examples are inspired from the 2nd reference linked below):
Three sentences in my native language translated into English are:
The interpretation of the phrase "Time flies like an arrow" really depends on an individual's background, thought process, upbringing etc. However, some interpretations listed here are inspired from the 3rd link below:
Randy Pausch (Randolph Frederick Pausch) was an American professor who worked at Carnegie Mellon University. He gave lectures and talks ranging from Time management to Really achieving your childhood dreams. Unfortunately, he battled against pancreas cancer for over 2 years and passed away in 2008. His lectures will remain influencing thousands and millions of individuals around the world.