Computer Science has evolved exponentially in the recent years, and so has the computing power. We have gone from Machines as big as a room to as small as an insect!
Computer Science is a branch of Mathematics thats deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation. It focus on practical techniques to implement and apply this information in the real world. Computer Science covers a wide range of topics from theoretical aspects like algorithms to more practical applications like implementing these algorithms in modern computer systems. Although the name may suggest otherwise, Computer Science has less to do with computers themselves. It is more involved in study of data and processing the data. It was established as an Academic discipline in the early 1960's.
Computing, on the other hand, is defined as the activity of using and improving computer systems. It has evolved from the very basic methods devices like Abacus to what we call super computers today. The rate at which the efficiency and accuracy of computing devices is increasing today is incredible. The first few important computing devices include the Mechanical Adding machine by Blaise Pascal, and the Jacquard loom. Soon after these, Charles Babbage laid the blue print for modern computing devices. Then in 1940, Alan Turing introduced the concept of a theoretical computing device, which was based on the concept that the device could perform any mathematical calculation.
After this period. computing devices were basically divided into 5 generations. The first generation computers used machine language code in the form of punch cards and could perform only one task at a time. They were enormous in size, and often took up an entire room. A lot of electricity was also used in the process, and therefore a lot of heat was emitted, causing malfunctions. These machines were very expensive to operate, and therefore were not suitable for the common public. ENIAC was the first such device created, and is regarded as the first digital computer.
The second generation saw a massive development in the form of transistors. Transistors were very small compared to vacuum tubes, and thus greatly reduced the size of the machine. Second generation computers now used assembly language, which made it easier for a programmer to write the instructions for the machine. Third generation computers marked reduction in size as miniature transistors were now used on Integrated circuits. The computers could now multi task, and were available to the public as a result of smaller size and lesser prices.
The fourth generation is what we see around today. Usage of Microprocessors reduced the size drastically. The device that would take up an entire room in the first generation can now be held in one's hand. The computers became even more cheaper and user friendly. They are used in most parts of the world today. One of the first personal computers was Apple I, and the first notebook-sized portable computer was the HX-20, introduced by Epson in 1982.
The fifth generation is the future of computing devices, and uses Artificial intelligence. Parts of these are already in use today, like voice recognition. Use of super conductors and parallel computing makes these devices faster than ever. The goal of these devices is to interact and respond naturally to Human sources. Advancement in computing will definitely make human lives easier, but if not used in the proper way, it has the ability to severely damage the entire human civilization!