Natural Language Procesing

What is Natural Language Processing?

Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of computer science, artificial intelligence, and computational linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages. As such, NLP is related to the area of human–computer interaction.

What does NPL include?

Broadly construed, natural language processing (with respect to the interpretation side) is considered to involve :

  • *Signal processing

  • *Syntactic analysis

  • *Semantic analysis

  • *Pragmatics

Is understanding NPL easy?

Thus there occurs an appreciation for the fact that understanding a natural language is much more complicated than just sorting out the words into parts of speech and looking up their definitions. It is mentioned that the varied types of knowledge relevant to natural language understanding are:

  • *Phonetic and phonological knowledge: how words are related to sounds.
  • *Morphological knowledge: how words are built from more primitive morphemes (e. g., how "friendly" comes from "friend." Morphology deals with the different inflections of a word, the forms it can take: a noun can be singular or plural, a verb can have different tenses, and so forth. Morphemes include "run," "laugh," "non-," "-s," and "-es." Programs can be written to process tokens of words or even the more basic level of morphemes.
  • *Syntactic knowledge: how sequences of words form correct sentences. Knowledge of the rules of grammar.
  • *Semantic knowledge: how words have "meaning"; how words have reference (denotation) and associated concepts (connotations)
  • *Pragmatic knowledge: "how sentences are used in different situations and how use affects the interpretation of the sentence," this involves the intentions and context of the conversation.
  • *Discourse knowledge: how preceding sentences determine the meaning of a sentence, such as in the case of the referent of a pronoun.
  • *World knowledge: general knowledge about for example, other users beliefs and goals in a conversation.

What are the applications of NLP?

1. Stremor Automated Summary and Abstract Generator

2.Text-Processing

3. Skyttle 2.0 (Skyttle API extracts topical keywords (single words and multiword expressions) and sentiment (positive or negative) expressed in text. Languages supported are English, French, German, Russian.)

4.Question-answering (WebKnox)

What is the goal of NLP?

The goal of natural language processing is to allow that kind of interaction so that non-programmers can obtain useful information from computing systems. This kind of interaction was popularized in the 1968 movie “2001: A Space Odyssey” and in the Star Trek television series. Natural language processing also includes the ability to draw insights from data contained in emails, videos, and other unstructured material.

Questions:

1-What is the the future of NLP?

2-What is the difference between nowadays NLP and the first NLP?

3-Is Siri a NLP application?

Useful Links:

1-Wired

2-Wikipedia

3-Coursera