# Hello! My name is Andrei. Sorry for my minimal website. I am done with my mid-terms so I have time to improve it :)

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# Randy Pausch

### Randy Pausch was an Carnegie Mellon Univerisity in Pittsburgh Computer Science professor who became famous for his inspiring talks. During a rough time for him, since he was in a terminal stage of pancreatic cancer, he decided to inspire milions of people with his speeches that would address several issues. One such speech was his Time Management Lecture that was seen by the community as one of his best. He addressed several issues, including how to set goals, how to do not waste time, and how to delegate tasks to people. He covered general aspects of time management including learning to say "No", Creative and Deadtime, Interruptions, Stress and Procrastination, and Delegation. I enjoyed most of the talk, but here are the things I really liked.

• How much do I cost per hour? - linking money to time.
• "Managing your time well makes you successful not vice versa."
• Do the things right vs doing the right things.
• Do the ugliest thing first.
• Doing things at the last minute is expensive.
• Use technology that helps you.
• Set goals before phoning.
• Get a to-do-list.

• # Theory of Computation

1. A decision problem can be interpreted as a yes-or-no question. In other words, given a specific input will the output be true or false.
2. A decision problem is decidable if it can be solved with an algorithm in a finite number of steps.
3. problem if efficiently decidable if it can be solved in polynomial time(O(n), O(n^2))
4. The "P versus NP" question tests whether a problem that can be quickly verified can be easily solved. For example, if we have a graph with N vertices and M edges, is there a way to pass through all the N vertices without passing through the same edge twice(Hamiltonian Cycle.)
5. 1 million dollars.

## More research on the topic

https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/hamiltonian-cycle-backtracking-6/
https://medium.com/@niruhan/p-vs-np-problem-8d2b6fc2b697
https://www.hackerearth.com/practice/algorithms/graphs/hamiltonian-path/tutorial/
https://brilliant.org/wiki/p-versus-np/

# Security

## Qatari News Company

A Qatari news company has been hacked according to the F.B.I and British law enforcement officials who have investigates the case, as a controversial report appeared just after midnight on an official website. The report stated that the emir of Qatar was quoted as describing "tensions" with the President of the United States, recommending friendship with Iran, praising the Palestinian militants of Hamas, and then attesting to his own "good" relations with Israel.

Special organizations have concluded that the incident was the result of a computer break-in, and was most likely carried out by Russian hackers, as they are the most frequently mercenary hackers involved in such attacks. According to the experts, they have been using a method named spear-phishing attacks- email designed to look innocent but contain malicious software applications.

## Qatari National Gas

THE QATARI NATURAL gas company commonly known as RasGas has been hit with a virus that affected the users' e-mail services, according to the reports. The malware, however, did not damage the company's operational computers that control the production and delivery of their product. The name of the virus is yet unclear, but most experts assume that it was a Shamoon Malware also used in an attack earlier against Saudi Aramco. Should this be the case, the virus is very dangerous and has a destructive payload that deletes the files on the computer that it infects. People suspect that the hackers infected the organization by hacked systems in several countries as this was the case with Aramco. Nothing was destroyed in this case-an official of the Ras Laffan Liquefied Natural Gas company told Bloomberg.

## More Reseach

https://www.wired.com/2012/08/hack-attack-strikes-rasgas/
https://antivirus.comodo.com/blog/comodo-news/shamoon-virus/
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/08/world/middleeast/qatar-cyberattack-espionage-for-hire.html
https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/uae-hacked-qatari-government-sites-sparking-regional-upheaval-according-to-us-intelligence-officials/2017/07/16/00c46e54-698f-11e7-8eb5-cbccc2e7bfbf_story.html

## Cloud Computing

Cloud Computing is the use of hardware and software to deliver a service over a network (typically the Internet). With cloud computing, users can access files and use applications from any device that can access the Internet.

## Techonologies

Cloud Computing is a relatively new field of Computer Science; however, certain technologies have been discovered and developed.

Virtualization - Provides standard versions to all clients.
Service-Oriented Architecture - The ability to arrange and adjust different cloud-related arrangements according to the business goals.
Grid Computing - The ability to connect multiple serves to achieve a target.
Utility Computing - This process relies on the pay-per-utilize model.

## Models

Infrastructure as a Service
Platform as a Service
Software as a Service

## Applications

Data/File Storage
Big data analytics
Backup

## Economic Model

Cloud isn’t a technology — it’s a new business model powered by new technologies. Cloud sells IT infrastructure, platforms, and applications as services. Its on-demand, “pay as you go” model reduces the time, money, and people it takes to build and deploy infrastructure and applications. Top cloud benefits are efficiency, agility, and innovation.

## Further Resources

https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/economics-of-cloud-computing/
https://www.lenovo.com/in/en/faqs/laptop-faqs/what-is-cloud-computing/

# Programming Languages

## General Purpose of Programming Languages

Before the advancement of technology, people did their jobs manually. It was very time consuming and inefficient, as human nature is predisposed to mistakes. Then the computer era came, and now the duties are done with the help of computers.

So, what is a programming language? - a connection between the humans and machines. Using programming languages, people can deliver certain commands to the machine, that would accomplish them exactly as specified by the creator.

## Why so many?

There are many programming languages and their uses are very important as each of them may accomplish different or certain tasks better.

Examples:

Java - developing interactive webpages and games.
C++ - writing applications.
Python/Ruby - used for web programming as well as desktop apps.
Lisp - For AI work.
C - suitable for system programs.

## Problems with C++

STL is time-consuming.

No inheritence from STL containers

Iterators are obscene. Pyhton makes use of these mcuh more efficient

Strings in C++ still rely on bytes or vector implementations

## My Language

If I were to create a programming language, the first thing I would consider its the applicability of it. I would think where and how could it be used in a specific area, what could be some of its advantages in that field compared to other programming languages.

https://www.quora.com/Why-is-C-so-hated-when-in-fact-it-is-powerful
https://www.cs.mcgill.ca/~rwest/wikispeedia/wpcd/wp/p/Programming_language.htm
https://www.freetext.org/Introduction_to_Computer_Programming/Introduction/Purpose_of_Programming_Languages/

# Artificial Intelligence

## Sub-Fields

i. Machine Learning
ii. Deep Learning
iii. Neural Networks
iv. Cognitive Computing

## Why now?

i. the creation and availability of data have grown during recent years.
ii. storage hardware has been improved due to advancements in technology.
iii. the advancement of the Internet.
iv. databases have supported the rapid development of AI.

## Applications

Robots are used in many sectors or fields because they operate extremely fast while also maximizing the efficiency of the company. Here are three sectors or fields where they function.

i. Food Sorting Robots - They are used mainly for cereals such as rice. Every grain is sorted by a robot that uses high-speed cameras, computers, and lights.
ii. Medical Training - Robots are used in the medical field and can facilitate many medical operations (surgeries, endoscopy, etc)
iii. Robots in police training - Robots could be used as snipers against criminals

## Challenges

Here are some challenges faced by surveillance robots:

i. New materials and fabrication methods
ii. Eco-friendly robots(bio-inspired robots)
iii. Power and Energy
iv. Battery

## Further Research into Algorithms

https://www.edureka.co/blog/artificial-intelligence-algorithms/
https://www.simplilearn.com/tutorials/data-science-tutorial/logistic-regression-in-r
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regression_analysis

# Natural Language Processing

## Applications

Text Extraction
Chatbots
Auto-Correct
Text Summarization

## My Words

necrezut -> ne - crezut
imbogatire -> im - bogatir(e)
reface -> re - face

## My sentences

Am mers la restaurant = I went to the restaurant

I went = Am mers, to = la

Imi place sa programez = I like to program

I like = Imi place, to program = sa programez

Am alergat pana la scoala = I ran to the school.

I ran = Am alergat, to = pana la, school = scoala

## Interpretations

In total there are 11 interpretations that prove the ambiguity of the sentence

The ambiguities arise due to the multiple meanings of the world "flies" which could both refer to an insect or an actions

Therefore, we could have various understandings such as

Interpretation: Time moves fast, compared to an arrow

Interpretation: Time could describe an arc

Interpretation: Measure the speed of flies that resemble an arrow(look similar to an arrow)

Interpretation: Compare the speed of flies with the speed of an arrow

## More research

https://www.datasciencecentral.com/profiles/blogs/top-nlp-algorithms-amp-concepts
https://programmerbackpack.com/top-natural-language-processing-nlp-algorithms-and-techniques-for-beginners/
https://sigmoidal.io/boosting-your-solutions-with-nlp/