of the Eleventh U.S.-Korea Forum on Nanotechnology:
Nanocomposites, and Nanoinformatics
Adopted on September 30, 2014
The first decade of the 21st century has been characterized by the advent of nanotechnology convergence in a broad spectrum of science and technology areas along with mutual and interdisciplinary research initiatives to achieve rapid progress toward second industrial revolution. To this purpose, the United States (National Science Foundation, NSF) and Korea (Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning) have been vigorously encouraging a common platform for the exchange of ideas and research collaboration in nanotechnology through these Forums, set up by the recommendations made by the Korea-US joint committee on Scientific and Technological Cooperation (held on October 31, 2002 in Seoul).
Ever since then, our Forums have been extremely successful, flourishing the decade’s history, in nanotechnology as a testimony to the transformative power of identifying a concept or trend and laying out a vision at the synergistic confluence of diverse scientific research areas. Our Forums have also provided a common platform for effective networking between research communities and industries in both countries by identifying emerging areas in nanotechnology which generate huge impact. This is evident from major collaboration initiatives established via our Forums. Organizing the Forums has significantly expedited the generation of cutting edge technologies for the thrust areas in both countries. These Forums have been well publicized through Carnegie Mellon website: http://www.andrew. cmu.edu/org/nanotechnology-forum/.
The first Forum, held in Seoul on October 14 & 15, 2003, was attended by amazingly large audience of 250 participants from both countries when nanotechnology was at its infancy. Since then, our Forums have been annually held alternatively in the US and Korea with 310 participants and 544 nanoscience experts during the past decade and covered a variety of timely topics. The US participants initially played an ambassador role for diversifying nanotechnology in Korea and many of our Forum recommendations have been implemented in the Korean government policies in nanotechnology. For example, we introduced environmental health and safety area in the fourth Forum, when this topic was not prominent in Korea. We also introduced a discussion platform by focusing on a new generation for nanotechnological products and processes in a timely effort as a paradigm shift during the previous Tenth Forum, which has opened up collaborations and discussions over the thrust areas of nanotechnology for the next decade. Currently, our Forums have helped forge a great deal of progress of nanotechnology in Korea, which now equals the technological expertise in the US and the recent Forums have resulted in the excellent roadmap for mutual partnership in the future.
The present Eleventh Forum brings in a new era of progress in applied nanotechnology was held at Seoul National University on September 28-30, 2014, and was attended by 34 eminent scientists and policy makers in the field of nanotechnology along with 98 nanoscience experts present in the audience. The Forum focused on laying out a roadmap for a new paradigm in nanomanufacturing, nanocomposite, and nanoinformatics. This Forum provides an opportunity to realize the promise of nanotechnology through the development of innovative and sustainable nanomanufacturing technologies for producing novel strong, light and smart nanocomposites and their management via nanoinformatics which will likely lead to paradigm shifting next generation enhanced performance of products in a broad range of existing industries including aerospace, automotive, energy, environmental remediation, information, and power industries as well as development of new industries.
The following are the general recommendations of this Forum:
(1) Topic of next Forum:
a. Convergence of water, energy, and food, or
c. Other timely topics agreed by both organizing committees
(2) Immediate collaboration
a. Nanosystems (large systems including modeling, simulations, and informatics)
b. 2D materials beyond graphene
d. Other timely topics agreed by both organizing committees
(3) Goals to be achieved
a. Networking of excellence between US and Korea
b. Educations and training modules in supporting materials including online
The following are recommendations made by the three subgroups:
Sub-group 1: Nanomanufacturing
Barriers to scale-up:
• Scalability and nanomaterials: cost of scaling nanomaterials, Consistent and reliable source of nanomaterials to give reproducible properties. Difference of scales: micro and nano combination. We need to standardize nanomaterials using materials chemistry
• Recommended set of characterization tools for all candidate nano materials. Set up a set of standard e.g. Au nanorods: what surfactant do you use.
• What kinds of nanomaterials are now manufacturable?
• How does nanomaterial contribute to manufacturing business. Hybrid techniques are useful.
• Heterogeneous nanomanufacturing using a variety of nanoelements in the same or subsequent processes for a variety of devices
• Role of surface on final pattern definition, how do you scale up single probe patterning
• Nanoimprint (tradeoff between throughput and yield requiring new designs of imprints to take in account heterogeneous patterns involved in microprocessors), understanding mechanical limits, keeping pace with industry and using academic perspective and expertise to make progress.
• How will 2D materials be integrated into large complex circuits (e.g. mechanical exfoliation got early traction by how do it make is scalable). Is CVD the next step? Despite of its own set of problems?
• Graphene has lots of problems. Size has variation. Doping/impurities are a problem.
• What other materials can be developed? Currently they are limited.
Roll to Roll Processing:
• Registration and alignment at the nanoscale, combining different layers. Going beyond polymers for high performance and new functionality
• Learn for the semiconductor industry fabrication practices that can apply to nanomanufacturing. For example, process control is very important.
• Fault tolerant design may be needed since the technology may not be able to continue to improve reproducibility. And don’t forget Yield (starts with the choice of nanomaterial).
• Design and manufacturing tools for self-assembly for better long range order and novel shapes
Metrology of nanomaterials
• 2D/3D nanostructure and its role in standardizing nanomaterials (in-line, in-situ, closed-loop, built-in, different types…)
• Consider EHS and risk in the use of nanomaterials
Mechanisms of Collaboration:
• There is a need for research funding (not just travel) from each respective government for joint or collabrotive projects.
Topics for Collaboration:
• Leverage the unique strengths of each country’s research focus/culture
• 2D materials
• Flexible Integration: How can we integrate top down and bottom up technique:
• Stretchable devices, integrate all components together on the same substrate.
• Heterogeneous integration and hierarchical integration
• Application driven: energy harvesting and storage, membranes, short term vs. long term.
• Reducing length scales of 3D printing to take advantage of disruptive opportunities.
• Education of training of post-docs and students
• Low cost manufacturing infrastructure
Sub-group 2: Nanocomposites
What are nanocomposites (as discussed in this forum)?
• Semiconductor film interfaces and particle-based composites seem to be most prevalent in the US and Korea
• Generally focused on combination of polymers and inorganic nanomaterials, typically to introduce flexibility to electrical devices, to increase strength, or add multifunctionality
• Structure-function relationship is important on a basic science level
• Applications seem to center on energy storage, harvesting, and generation
Strengths in US and Korea:
• Well established procedures to make individual materials, but to apply them will need to integrate together and with existing structures
• Strengths in energy storage and harvesting
• Strengths in semiconductor industry with potential for integrating new types of nanotechnologies
• Nanocomposites for increased strength
• How to get joint funding, or fund each side of the project?
• Questions about IP management. No clear rules on IP management
• Roadblocks to nanotechnology commercialization include scale-up and integration
• Need for business development to identify value proposition of new products
• PIRE program at NSF for new collaborations, possible source to nucleate new interactions.
• Suggest joint US/Korea funding that can be applied for to nucleate or seed collaborations. Two thoughts:
- Focus of funding on bringing together faculty and students to meet and discuss future collaborations (i.e., travel funds, maybe $25k); maybe available for up to 2 years after first meeting and also available to others outside the initial team (for example, if I know someone that would be a great collaborator for someone in Korea I could recommend them)
- Seed funding for new collaborations for research; often seed funding ranges from $25k-100k over 1-2 years.
• Integration of international partners in new centers.
• Some universities in the US have seed funding programs for international research; maybe accumulate a list of US universities with such programs as potential partners
Opportunities for Collaboration:
• Many of the attendees are young faculty, so despite the fact that program is ongoing, forum introduces new groups of faculty to opportunities in Korea
• Alternatively, if the desire is to increase collaborations more immediately, increase continuity between forums so that some of the same people return to increase interactions
• Student exchanges through existing centers in US and Korea
• Follow-up with US-Korea meetings at major society meetings, for example dinner at MRS meetings for alumni of this program
Potential Areas of Collaboration:
• Automotive industry and airspace industry for light weight, strong composites; with low cost
- Instead of synthesizing materials based on what is easy in the lab, integrate new nanotechnologies with materials currently used in industry (e.g., polymers)
• Multifunctional materials, integrate mechanical strength with energy, flexibility, for example bullet-proof batteries, super strong and flexible LEDs and displays
Sub-group 3: Nanoinformatics
Significance of IT based tools in Nano-Science / What can be expected from Nano-Informatics
• High throughput calculation can make big database of various properties
• Useful to find the novel complex materials by prediction.
• Molecular level prediction from accumulated theoretical and experimental data (validated)
• Well organized data of the previous work will result in more efficient research environment.
• Robust search and mining IT tool of existing data will be useful.
What are the key technical elements for the Nano Informatics? (Design of Nano-materials and Processes)
• Reliable DB construction
• Motivating People to contribute to this area (Important to incentivize them)
• Human Network of different disciplines
• High throughput and high accuracy ab initio calculation
• Scale bridging or multiscale Simulation
• Sensitivity analysis of experimental parameters
• Data Mining – for discovery and design
• Application independent Modeling (“CAD-CAM” of the future)
Major progress for last 10 years:
• Some initial efforts to make nano information from experimental and theoretical research more searchable
• Impressive theory, simulation, and modeling efforts; greater access to simulation tools
• International efforts in sharing EHS information and data
• Adapting some informatics methods from other fields and also creating new methods specific to nano
• Web based simulation platform for nano technology
Issues for the next 10 years:
• Need to establish metrics of confidence for nanoinformatics data and models
• Interface of complex structured nanomaterials should be addressed.
• Development of multiscale simulation technology – better predictive models for macroscale properties of nanomaterials
• Hybrid research with strong phenomenological approach
• Clearly delineate between the robust, experimentally validated models and the harder problems that lie at the frontiers of understanding
• Time dependent non-equilibrium phenomena (kinetics)
• High throughput (automated) calculations methods for many nano-materials issues (surface, interface etc.)
• Structure prediction of unknown materials
• Utilize the emerging methodologies from computer science (e.g., artificial intelligence algorithms)
What can be expected to come from the collaboration between US and Korea?
• More interaction between researchers
• Application research of theoretical results (computation or informatics)
• Mechanisms for exchange of students and researchers
• Development of Nano-Informatics Platform for Enhanced Nano Science and Technology
• Development of nanomanufacturing informatics data and tools
On behalf of the U.S participants
On behalf of the Korean
Myung S. Jhon, Professor
Carnegie Mellon University
Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Ahmed Busnaina, Professor
Boston, MA, USA
Jo-Won Lee, Professor